In a growing number of people, the body’s tissues don’t respond to insulin as they should and resist its “open up for sugar” signal. This resistance to insulin keeps blood sugar at high levels for longer periods and forces the pancreas to produce extra insulin in order to jam glucose into cells. Like an overworked, undermaintained pump, the insulin-making cells in the pancreas may wear out and eventually stop producing insulin. Faltering insulin production is an early sign of type 2 diabetes, which is also called non-insulin- dependent diabetes and was once called adult-onset diabetes.

In this article from the Food Properties section, we take a look at all the necessary information about this topic. Stay with 4teenweightloss .


Four things contribute to insulin resistance. Obesity is at the top of the list. The further you get from a healthy body mass index , the more difficulty your body has handling glucose. Next on the list is inactivity. The less active you are, the lower the ratio of muscle to fat you have, even if your weight is perfectly fine. Muscle cells, especially if they are exercised regularly, handle insulin and glucose very efficiently. Fat cells don’t. So the less muscle you have, the harder it is to clear glucose from the bloodstream. Dietary fats play a modest role in insulin resistance, with low intake of polyunsaturated fat and high intake of trans fats leading to greater resistance. Finally, genes play a part. Insulin resistance is more common among Native Americans, Pacific Islanders, and other people of Asian heritage than it is among those of European descent. But people with a genetic predisposition to insulin resistance can beat the condition by staying lean, being physically active, and eating the right diet.
Insulin resistance isn’t just a blood sugar problem. It has also been linked with a variety of other problems, including high blood pressure, high levels of triglycerides, low HDL (good) cholesterol, heart disease, and possibly some cancers.

learn more: Fats in the Bloodstream


People who are overweight appear to fare worse on a diet high in carbohydrates than do lean people. In the Nurses’ Health Study, for example, eating a lot of easily digested carbohydrates is most strongly connected to increased odds of having a heart attack among women who are overweight. What’s more, experiments in which volunteers were asked to follow high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets ended up with heart- unhealthy changes in levels of HDL and triglycerides, not to mention higher levels of blood sugar and insulin, and these changes were the most pronounced in overweight people.
Put more plainly, a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet may be among the worst eating strategies for someone who is overweight and not physically active. The Healthy Eating Pyramid recommends a diet that includes fewer refined carbohydrates, more good fats, and more carbohydrates from intact grains. Whether or not you are overweight, the switch from refined to whole grains will be healthy because of the increased intake of micronutrients.



Some foods containing carbohydrates make blood sugar spike in a flash. Others yield their sugars more slowly, acting like those sustained-release cold capsules you may have seen advertised on television.
Not long ago, the rule of thumb was that sugars triggered rapid rises in blood sugar and insulin, while complex carbohydrates caused more delayed responses. But nutrition researcher David Jenkins and his colleagues at the University of Toronto turned this conventional wisdom on its head by systematically testing the impact of different carbohydrates on blood sugar levels compared with white bread. (See “Measuring the Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load.”) The carbohydrate ranking they developed, called the glycemic index (GI), counters the notion that all complex carbohydrates are good and all simple ones are bad. The higher a food’s glycemic index, the faster and stronger it affects blood sugar and insulin levels. As a reference point, pure glucose—the rapidly digested essence of blood sugar— is assigned a score of 100. On this scale, anything below 55 or so is considered a lowglycemic-index food. A low glycemic load is considered to be anything below 10.

learn more: Carbohydrates for Better and Worse

Some of the glycemic index rankings are exactly what you might expect. An apple has a glycemic index of 38. A serving of old-fashioned (not instant) oatmeal has a glycemic index of 58. Ten jelly beans have a glycemic index of 78. Other rankings come as a surprise. Cornflakes, surely a complex carbohydrate, are in the 80s, while ice cream and a Snickers bar—which most people would assign to the simple carbohydrate camp—have lower glycemic index rankings than white bread, a classic complex carbohydrate. Perhaps surprisingly, dark bread can have just as high a glycemic index value as white bread if the flour is finely ground. However, its higher content of fiber and other nutrients sets it apart as a healthier choice.
Foods with a high glycemic index can offer a fast energy boost by quickly increasing blood sugar levels. (That’s one reason some people who use insulin to treat diabetes are urged to carry glucose tablets when they travel or exercise.) But such foods also promote equally swift drops in blood sugar that may trigger the early return of hunger. In contrast, the steadier, more sustained release of glucose associated with low–glycemic index foods may stave off hunger for longer periods. They may also help keep diabetes at bay.


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